هو معكم أينما كنتم

After being briefly taken down due to some hackers I am back with a lot of (hopefully) interesting content ideas for this year. Recently I have been teaching some discussions on Arabic morphology and grammar and have been preparing a lot of different material for that, which I would like to share here.

The following is a table that documents some of the major scholars and works written, in the fields of Arabic morphology, grammar and rhetoric. I prepared this table as an introduction to the sciences of the Arabic language because I believe that understanding the history of this scholarly tradition can offer a lot of insight to the material that is typically studied to learn Arabic morphology, grammar and rhetoric.

For example, it helps to understand that most of Arabic grammar as we know it today is heavily influenced by the Basran school and that this school incorporated a lot of philosophical lines of reasoning into their conclusions on the rules of Arabic grammar. There are certain discussions in Arabic grammar that are heavily influenced by ideas on causality, or more specifically, the idea that one effect can only have one cause.

I accompanied this table with a lot of discussion focusing on the differences between the different schools, introducing important works etc. when teaching, however here I have just posted the table with a few interesting notes here and there. For some further discussion on the history and development of Arabic grammar, this post on Iqra Online might be helpful although it is a little technical.

Below is the table, please note all death dates are approximate,

NameDeath (Hijrī)SchoolWorksNotes
Al-Akhfash (Al-Akbar)157Baṣrī
Al-Khalīl Bin Aḥmad al-Farāhidī174BaṣrīKitāb al-‘Ain (Dictionary), Al-Jumal fī al-NaḥwTeacher of Al-Sībaway
Al-Sībaway180BaṣrīAl-KitābTeacher of Al-Sībaway
Yūnus Bin Ḥabīb bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān183BaṣrīTeacher of Al-Sībaway
Al-Kisāī189KūfīHe is one of the 7 Qurrā and is considered one of the main scholars from the Kūfī school
Quṭrub206BaṣrīHe was a mu’tazalī, studied under al-Sībaway. He taught al-Kisāī.
Al-Farrā207KūfīMa’ānī al-Qurān
Al-Akhfash (Al-Awsaṭ)208BaṣrīMa’ānī al-QurānHe is known to be the most knowledgable of al-Sībaway's students. He narrated al-Sībaway's book to his students such as Al-Māzinī.
Ibn al-Sikkīt244KūfīKitāb al-AlfāẓHe was famous for being Shia and was apparently killed by al-Mutawakkil for this same reason.
Al-Māzinī249BaṣrīAl-Taṣrīf
Al-Mubarrad285BaṣrīAl-Kāmil fī al-Lughah wa al-Adab, Al-MuqtaḍabHe is from amongst the most famous students of al-Māzinī. Some would even say that he was the most knowledgeable in Arabic grammar after al-Sībaway. He is the teacher of al-Zujāj
Tha’lab 291Kūfī
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm al-Zujāj311BaṣrīTafsīr Asmā Allah al-Ḥusnā
Abū Sa’īd al-Sīrāfī368Baṣrī
Abū ‘Alī al-Fārsī377BaghdādīTa’līqāt on al-Kitāb
Ibn Jinnī392BaghdādīAl-Khaṣāiṣ, Al-Munṣif
‘Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī 474BalāghīyūnDalāil al-I’jāz Largely written to develop the discussion on why the Quran was a miracle
Jār Allah Al-Zamakhsharī538BaghdādīAl-Mufaṣṣal, Al-Kashshāf
Ibn al-Anbārī 577KūfīAl-Inṣāf fī Masāil al-Khilāf
Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī 606BalāghīyūnNihāyat al-Ījāz fī Dirāyat al-I’jāzHe wrote an abridged version of al-Jurjānī’s work in which he tried to refine, polish and develop newer ideas on top of the concepts that al-Jurjānī had proposed
Al-Sakkākī626BalāghīyūnMiftāḥ al-‘Ulūm This book is very comparable to the idea of a Latin trivium which would typically comprise of grammar, logic and rhetoric
Ibn al-Ḥājib646MiṣrīAl-Shāfīyah, Al-KāfīyahSome attribute al-Hidāyah fī al-Naḥw to Ibn al-Ḥājib or apparently to his daughter
Ibn ‘Uṣfūr663AndalūsīAl-Mumta’ fī al-Taṣrīf
Ibn Mālik672AndalūsīAlfīyyah
Raḍī al-Dīn al-Astarābādī686Commentary on al-Shāfīyah and al-Kāfīyah
Khaṭīb al-Qazwīnī 739BalāghīyūnTalkhīs al-MiftāḥTalkhīs al-Miftāḥ was an abridged and refined version of Miftāḥ al-‘Ulūm
Abū Ḥayyān745AndalūsīAl-Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ
Ibn Hishām761MiṣrīSharḥ Qaṭr al-Nidā, Mughnī al-Labīb, Awḍaḥ al-Masālik fī Sharḥ Alfīyat Ibn Mālik
Ibn ‘Aqīl 769MiṣrīSharḥ Ibn ‘Aqīl ‘alā Alfīyat Ibn MālikHe was a student of Abu Ḥayyān
Al-Taftāzānī 792BalāghīyūnSharḥ Kitāb al-Taṣrīf, Al-Muṭṭawwal, Mukhtaṣar al-Ma’ānīAl-Muṭṭawwal is a commentary on Talkhīs al-Miftāḥ.
Niẓām (/Naẓẓām) al-Dīn al-Nīsapūrī850Sharḥ al-Naẓẓām(/Niẓām) ‘alā al-Shāfīyah
Al-Suyūṭī911MiṣrīHam’ al-Hawāmi’, Al-Bihjat al-Marḍīyah
Shaykh Bahāī1030Al-Ṣamadīyah
‘Abbās Ḥasan1399 (1979 AD)Al-Naḥw al-Wāfī

Leave a Reply